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"Instead, use spare paper to doodle a big swatch of soft graphite or charcoal pencil, then use a large blending stick to pick up the soft dust to use for your image. Keep using the blending stick and adding more scribbles as you need more graphite. Using the same technique, start darkening some areas of the sky to define the tops of the clouds."

Tripod (top) and extended tripod (bottom) grips

Take control of your pencil by Black Messenger Bag CHEREVICHKIOTVICHKI 5uESx
, says illustrator Sylwia Bomba . "If you position your hand closer to the end of the pencil, you have more control and precision, but heavier strokes (darker markings). Gripping further up the pencil will give you less control and precision, but lighter strokes (lighter markings)."

Shifts in the width and darkness of your lines will create interest

Use varied lines, says illustrator Tote Bag pierced heart by VIDA VIDA MlGl8L7K
. "Not all lines are equal. Subtle shifts in the width and darkness of your lines will create a dynamic, visually interesting drawing. Controlling the kind of mark you put down can be tricky in the beginning, but with practice you will be able to create a variety of marks that work together to make a cohesive image. Experiment with different pencil grades (from 3H to 6B) and with holding the pencil at different angles."

If you look at the examples here, it’s clear that the first girl is holding a mug, but what about the second one? It’s not as clear!

"Have you ever noticed that every important character in an animation movie is recognisable from their shadow alone?", says artist JEWELLERY Necklaces Camille Enrico 5OUooQwMq
. "This magic has a name: the silhouette. The purpose of finding a strong and interesting silhouette is to create an easily recognisable character that will remain clear in the visual memory of the viewer.

"To test out whether your characters are readable as silhouettes, grab a piece of tracing paper and trace around your character, filling it in with a solid colour. A great way to test your silhouettes is to show them to your friends or colleagues and ask them what they see."

Flipping the image can help highlight any problems

"A benefit of tracing paper is that you can flip it over to see how your drawing looks from the reverse angle," advises artist Justin Gerard . "This can help reveal errors in proportion. As you work, take advantage of this in order to arrive at a more successful drawing."

Keep a nice contrast going between a finished look and a more of a sketchy feel

"I like symmetrical drawings but they often look boring all too quickly," says Croes. "A good way to prevent this is to add some subtle changes and only keep the general lines symmetrical instead of mirroring every small part. Keeping some elements asymmetrical helps to avoid boring repetition."

An example of an illustration using irregular lines

"The use of irregular lines when shading adds a lot of dynamism to your sketch," Bomba says. "If you want to create a fresh and unique sketch of a portrait, architecture, or concept art, you should definitely use this technique. I use it to sketch loosely, flat backgrounds (if there is no texture, this technique will add some), bushes, or grass."

Key characteristics of the community Chain Kl956S sunglasses Brown Karl Lagerfeld vzTfY
Case study: Analysis of community in Garin Dan Djibo

Chapter 3 dealt with the characteristics of goods and services provided by tree and forest resources, noting that certain characteristics are more likely to encourage nurturing behaviour toward these resources, while others encourage more rapacious exploitation. By understanding these characteristics and where necessary modifying the incentives that result in poor management, communities and foresters can follow the most promising paths to improving local resource management. Chapter 3 also highlighted the need for efforts by community governments to govern resources that produce either common pool or public goods and services. This is because individual incentives will not be sufficient to provide the desired level of investment in these resources.

This chapter considers the communities within which these resource governance and management efforts take place. Just as the resources themselves have characteristics that encourage more or less sustainable management practices, communities also have different characteristics that result in varying incentives affecting how people manage resources. In some communities, for example, there is a powerful sense of unity that generates pressure to conform to established norms. Group pressure may play an important role in getting people to engage in an activity like tree planting, or in persuading them to protect a sacred grove. In other communities the tendency to divisiveness may be an equally powerful influence. There may be two factions in the community, for example, and whatever the merit of an initiative taken by the first faction, the second will automatically refuse to participate and will actively seek ways to sabotage the initiative.

A key factor that determines a community's ability to manage resources is its social cohesion and willingness to set and strive for common goals. This does not mean that the community must be homogeneous (although this often helps). Indeed there are many communities of people with the same ethnicity, religion, family history, etc., that are deeply divided. Conversely there are many heterogeneous communities made up of people of varying backgrounds who are nevertheless able to overcome their differences in order to work toward common objectives. The key issue is whether the community is able to establish common goals, establish strategies for accomplishing those goals and then work together to follow the strategy that has been proposed.

Several characteristics of the community can give clues to the degree of its social cohesion and anticipate problems that may arise. These characteristics include the history of the community and its relations with others, its present social structure, its cultural values and the way it governs itself. These and other characteristics will be discussed later in the chapter. These characteristics in turn provide incentives or disincentives in several areas related to resource management. They include: (1) incentives to cooperate (or not to cooperate) in resource governance, (2) incentives to obey (or disobey) resource management rules, and (3) incentives to include the needs of future generations in resource management strategies (or to govern resources for short-term gain).

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There aren’t a lot of brands that agree to spend their resources on providing utility without forcing their sales message. But there are some that execute it with grace and strike a good balance between utility and marketing. Here’s what we can learn from them.

2 minute Read

There is a new phenomenon sweeping the world of marketing: utilitarianism marketing — providing would-be customers with something useful while also delivering your marketing message.

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Utilitarianism marketing provides a valuable service to customers, whether they ever pay a penny to the company itself or not. It is a truly selfless look at what people might need and taking an action to help make their lives better.

There aren’t a lot of brands that agree to spend their resources on providing utility without forcing droves of their own marketing/sales messages on the world. But there are some that execute it with grace and strike a good balance between utility and marketing.

Let’s take a look at some of the best ones around.

The greatest thing about IBM’s Smarter Cities campaign is that even its advertising is smart. Their range of benches, ramps and shelters were designed to be “not only beautiful, but useful to city dwellers.” The campaign aimed to draw people’s attention to IBM’s forum for sharing ideas for how to build and empower smarter cities–and in doing so produced some smart-city ideas of their own.

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Vanish stain remover is one of the biggest-selling products in the industry, but the brand was worried that their advertising was not “hitting the right tone” so they developed the @TPSbag Twitter handle to encourage customers to share their stain-removal tips, as well as introducing the stain-solver page on their website. It’s a whole different approach to marketing which lets customers do the talking and sharing (as well as providing utility), rather than the brand dominating the conversation. It empowers customers with useful and accurate knowledge, while associating the brand with positive solutions.

It’s one of those ideas that is so blindingly obvious that once you’ve seen it you wonder how no-one has thought of it before. What do travelers need to do at airports? Charge their phones. Cue Reflection Rectangle Acrylic Clutch Judith Leiber znbV4
that allow passengers to charge their phones before they travel–but that put Samsung’s name in large letters in front of their eyes. Yes, it does help raise Samsung’s profile, but it provides a hugely useful service to airport users.

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2018 Healthline Media UK Ltd. All rights reserved. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.